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Roselawn Surgery has a quit smoking clinic every Thursday - enquire at reception
Asthma is a common condition that causes coughing, wheezing, tightness of the chest and breathlessness. Most people with asthma who take the appropriate treatment can live normal lives, but left untreated, asthma can cause permanent damage to the airways
The usual symptoms of asthma are
Not everyone will get all of these symptoms. Some people experience them from time to time; a few people may experience these symptoms all the time.
There isn't a cure for asthma. However, treatments are available to help manage your symptoms. Your treatment plan will be individual to you, combining medicines and asthma management in a way that works best for you
Medicines are only part of your treatment for asthma. You will also need to deal with the things that make it worse. Keep a diary to record anything that triggers your asthma - this can help you to discover a pattern. Using a peak flow meter to monitor your lung function can also help. If you have repeatedly low readings in a certain situation (for example, at the end of a working day, after exercise or after contact with an animal) this may indicate the trigger.
Asthma UK This website has been revamped to meet the needs of the thousands of people with asthma who visit the site each day, either to find important information about asthma and how to control it
Asthma in Adults An excellent resource with useful video, audio, images and references relating to asthma in adults.
Asthma in Children This factsheet is for parents of children who have asthma, or who would like information about it
NHS Choices - Asthma Further information about symptoms, treatment, causes and prevention of Asthma.
These links all come from trusted resources but if you are unsure about these or any other medical matters please contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
One in three people will be affected by cancer at some stage in their life. There are many different types of cancer and this page doesn't cover them all, but the general information will help you to access further information and support.
There are more videos available Macmillan and the support they offer on the Macmillan Video Site
There is further information and educational videos on the Cancer Research UK Video Site
Cancer - Healthtalkonline Healthtalkonline, an award-winning charity website, lets you share in other people's experiences of health and illness. An excellent resource compiled after interviewing a wide range of people suffering from heart disease.
Cancer Overview An excellent resource with useful video, audio, images and references relating to differing forms of Cancer, the causes & treatments.
Cancerhelp Free information service provided by Cancer Research UK about cancer and cancer care for people with cancer and their families. Information is formatted in such a way that makes understanding the website an easy process
Macmillan Cancer Support Europe's leading cancer information charity, with over 4,500 pages of up-to-date cancer information, practical advice and support for cancer patients, their families and carers.
NHS Choices Further information about symptoms, treatment, causes and prevention of Cancer
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a preventable disease that was responsible for the deaths of 88,000 people in the UK in 2008 (British Heart Foundation CHD Statistics 2010). In all, 191,00 died from heart and circulatory disease in the UK. Death rates are highest in Scotland and North of England and lowest in the South of England. CHD is the biggest killer in the country.
There are more videos available on all aspects of BHF and heart disease on the BHF video site
Now you can download and listen to podcasts free from the BHF - either on the move or in the comfort of your own home. We have a few examples below, there is a full list on the podcast page.
Giving Up Smoking
Risk Factors & Heart Disease
"The British Heart Foundation is Britain’s leading charity fighting heart and circulatory disease – the UK’s biggest killer. The BHF funds research, education and life-saving equipment and helps heart patients return to a full and active way of life. The charity relies on donations to continue its vital work."
The BHS recommends that only properly validated BP monitors be used both in the clinic and at home. All the monitors listed on their website have been clinically validated. This means that all the machines, regardless of their cost, give reliable readings when used correctly. Please note that added cost does not equate to added accuracy.
View a list of clinically validated BP monitors
CHD - Healthtalkonline Healthtalkonline, an award-winning charity website, lets you share in other people's experiences of health and illness. An excellent resource compiled after interviewing a wide range of people suffering from heart disease.
CHD An excellent resource with useful video, audio, images and references relating to CHD.
NHS Choices Further information about symptoms, treatment, causes and prevention of CHD.
British Heart Foundation Our vision is of a world in which people do not die prematurely of heart disease. We will achieve this through our pioneering research, our vital prevention activity and by ensuring quality care and support for people living with heart disease.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a collection of lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic obstructive airways disease. The main symptom of COPD is an inability to breathe in and out properly. This is also referred to as airflow obstruction.
NHS Choices Guide to the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and risks of COPD from the NHS
COPD Factsheet This factsheet is for people who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or who would like information about it.
British Lung Foundation Information and guidance on living with COPD
Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is also known as diabetes mellitus. There are two types of diabetes - type 1 and type 2.
According to the charity Diabetes UK, more than two million people in the UK have the condition and up to 750,000 more are believed to have it without realising they do.
More than three-quarters of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This used to be known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing as it commoner in the overweight and obese, which is itself a growing problem.
The remainder have type 1 diabetes mellitus, which used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
It's recognised that the sooner the blood sugar levels are brought under control, the better the long term prospects of preventing damage. Lifestyle advice about diet, weight management and regular activity is the first step.
Type 1 diabetes will require immediate insulin therapy, Type 2 diabetes will first be managed with a drug called Metformin, if lifestyle changes alone aren't effective. There are now several other drugs used in type 2 diabetes, although eventually some type 2 diabetics will need insulin therapy as it's a progressive disease
There is further information and education on the Diabetes UK Video Site
Diabetes - Healthtalkonline Healthtalkonline, an award-winning charity website, lets you share in other people's experiences of health and illness. An excellent resource compiled after interviewing a wide range of people suffering from heart disease.
Type 1 Diabetes An excellent resource with useful information and references relating to Type 1 Diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes A useful resource regarding Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes UK Largest charity in the UK devoted to the care and treatment of people with diabetes in order to improve the quality of life for people with the condition
NHS Choices Further information about symptoms, treatment, causes and prevention of Diabetes
Mental health is about how we think, feel and behave. One in four people in the UK have a mental health problem at some point in their lives, which affects their daily life, relationships or physical health.
Mental health disorders take many different forms and affect people in different ways. Schizophrenia, depression and personality disorders are all examples of mental health problems. Diseases such as Alzheimer's and dementia generally develop in old age, whereas eating disorders are more common in young people.
The Alzheimer's Society is the leading care and research charity for people with dementia and their carers.
They provide further information and education, support for carers, and quality day and home care on the Alzheimer's Society Video Site
You can subscribe to wellbeing podcasts on the Mental Health Foundation Website.
The website of the Mental Health Foundation outlines the charity’s work in research, policy, service development and service user involvement. The site offers information and publications to download on research, good practice in services and on mental health problems and key issues.
Mental Health - Healthtalkonline Healthtalkonline, an award-winning charity website, lets you share in other people's experiences of health and illness. An excellent resource compiled after interviewing a wide range of people suffering from heart disease.
Alzheimer's Disease An information sheet helping to understand mroe about Alzheimer's Disease
Depression An information sheet helping to understand more about the causes, treatment and understanding of Depression
Alzheimer’s Society Comprehensive information for people with all forms of dementia. Alzheimer's Society is a membership organisation, which works to improve the quality of life of people affected by dementia in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Mental Health Foundation Founded in 1949, the Mental Health Foundation is a leading UK charity that provides information, carries out research, campaigns and works to improve services for anyone affected by mental health problems, whatever their age and wherever they live
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis, affecting 8.5 million people in the UK. It develops gradually over time, causing joints to become stiff and painful. It can affect any joint but commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, feet and spine.
Osteoarthritis usually develops in people who are over 50 years of age, and it is more common in women than in men. It is commonly thought that osteoarthritis is an inevitable part of getting older, but this is not true. Younger people can also be affected by osteoarthritis, often as a result of an injury or another joint condition.
Arthritis Research UKArthritis Research UK is the charity leading the fight against arthritis. Everything we do is underpinned by research
NHS Choices Guide to the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and risks of Ostearthritis from the NHS
Osteoarthritis Factsheet This factsheet is for people who have osteoarthritis or who would like information about it.
Arthritis Care Arthritis Care exists to support people with arthritis. They are the UK’s largest organisation working with and for all people who have arthritis.
Mild-to-moderate Chronic Kidney Disease If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD) then your kidneys are not working as well as they once did. Various conditions can cause CKD. Severity can vary but most cases are: mild or moderate, occur in older people, do not cause symptoms and do not progress to kidney failure. People with any stage of CKD have an increased risk of developing heart disease or a stroke. This is why it is important to detect even mild CKD, as treatment may not only slow down the progression of the disease, but also reduces the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. This leaflet is for people who have been diagnosed with mild-to-moderate CKD (stage 1, 2 or 3 CKD). A separate leaflet in this series, called Chronic Kidney Disease, is more appropriate if you have more severe CKD (stage 4 or 5 CKD).
If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD) then your kidneys are not working as well as they once did. Various conditions can cause CKD. Severity can vary but most cases are: mild or moderate, occur in older people, do not cause symptoms and do not progress to kidney failure. People with any stage of CKD have an increased risk of developing heart disease or a stroke. This is why it is important to detect even mild CKD, as treatment may not only slow down the progression of the disease, but also reduces the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. This leaflet is for people who have been diagnosed with mild-to-moderate CKD (stage 1, 2 or 3 CKD). A separate leaflet in this series, called Chronic Kidney Disease, is more appropriate if you have more severe CKD (stage 4 or 5 CKD).
The two kidneys lie to the sides of the upper abdomen (the loins), behind the intestines, and either side of the spine. Each kidney is about the size of a large orange, but bean-shaped.A large artery - the renal artery - takes blood to each kidney. The artery divides into many tiny blood vessels (capillaries) throughout the kidney. In the outer part of the kidneys, tiny blood vessels cluster together to form structures called glomeruli.Each glomerulus is like a filter. The structure of the glomerulus allows waste products and some water and salt to pass from the blood into a tiny channel called a tubule. The liquid that remains at the end of each tubule is called urine. The urine then passes down a tube called a ureter which goes from each kidney to the bladder. Urine is stored in the bladder until it is passed out when we go to the toilet.The main functions of the kidneys are to:
CKD means that your kidneys are affected in some way. As a result, your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. A whole range of conditions can cause CKD (see later). Some terms explained:
A simple blood test can estimate the volume of blood that is filtered by the glomeruli in your kidneys over a given period of time. This test is called the estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR). A normal eGFR is 90 ml/min/1.73 m or more. If some of the glomeruli (the tiny filters in the kidneys) do not filter as much as normal, then the kidney is said to have reduced or impaired kidney function.CKD is diagnosed by the eGFR and other factors, and is divided into five stages:
The eGFR blood test is commonly done as a routine part of monitoring people with kidney diseases or with conditions that can affect the kidneys, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. It is also often done as a routine test in many medical situations. If you are found to have CKD then the eGFR test is usually done at regular intervals to monitor your kidney function.
About 1 in 10 people have some degree of CKD. It can develop at any age and various conditions can lead to CKD. It becomes more common with increasing age and is more common in women. Although about half of people aged 75 or more have some degree of CKD, most of these people do not actually have diseases of their kidneys; they have normal ageing of their kidneys. Most cases of CKD are mild or moderate (stages 1-3).
A number of conditions can cause permanent damage to the kidneys and/or affect the function of the kidneys and lead to CKD. Three common causes in the UK, which probably account for about 3 in 4 cases of CKD in adults, are:
There are various other less common conditions that can cause CKD.
You are unlikely to feel unwell or have symptoms with mild-to-moderate CKD - that is, stages 1 to 3. (However, there may be symptoms of an underlying condition such as kidney pain with certain kidney conditions.) CKD is usually diagnosed by the eGFR test before any symptoms develop. (If the kidney function declines to stages 4 or 5 then various symptoms and problems may develop.)
As mentioned, the eGFR test is done to diagnose and monitor the progression and severity of CKD. For example, it should be done routinely at least once a year in people with stages 1 and 2 CKD, and more frequently if you have stage 3, 4 or 5 CKD. You are likely to have routine urine dipstick tests from time to time to check for blood and protein in the urine. Also, blood tests may be done from time to time to check on your blood level of chemicals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate. The need for other tests then depends on various factors and your doctor will advise - for example:
Treatment for most cases is usually done by GPs. In many people, treatment at early stages of CKD can prevent or slow down progression through to eventual kidney failure. (Your GP may refer you to a specialist if you develop stage 4 or 5 CKD, or at any stage if you have problems or symptoms that require specialist investigation.) The main aims of treatment for mild-to-moderate CKD include:
There are various conditions that can cause CKD. For some of these there may be specific treatments for that particular condition. For example, good glucose control for people with diabetes, blood pressure control for people with high blood pressure, etc.
Once CKD has developed, in many cases it tends gradually to become worse over months or years. This can occur even if an underlying cause has been treated. You should have checks every now and then by your GP or practice nurse to monitor your kidney function (eGFR). They will also give you treatment and advice on how to prevent or slow down the progression of CKD. This usually includes:
People with CKD have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. People with CKD are actually twenty times more likely to die from cardiovascular-related problems than from kidney failure. This is why reducing any other cardiovascular risk factors is so important. See separate leaflet called Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases for details. Briefly, this typically includes:
If you have high levels of protein in your urine then you may be advised to take medication even if your blood pressure is normal. A type of medication called an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (for example, captopril, enalapril, ramipril, lisinopril) has been shown to be beneficial for some people with CKD, as it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and can prevent further worsening of the function of your kidneys.Note: people with stage 3 CKD or worse should also be immunised against influenza each year, and have a one-off immunisation against pneumococcus.
Stages 1-3 CKD (mild-to-moderate) are common, with most cases occurring in older people. It tends to get gradually worse over months or years. However, the rate of progression varies from person to person, and often depends on the severity of any underlying condition. For example, some kidney conditions may cause your kidney function to get worse relatively quickly. However, in most cases, CKD progresses only very slowly. Only a small number of people with CKD will progress to end-stage kidney failure (stage 5 CKD) that requires kidney dialysis or kidney transplant. For many people with CKD there is a much higher risk of developing serious cardiovascular disease than of developing end-stage kidney failure. In short ...
A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.
Like all organs, the brain needs the oxygen and nutrients provided by blood to function properly. If the supply of blood is restricted or stopped, brain cells begin to die. This can lead to brain damage and possibly death.
Strokes are a medical emergency and prompt treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.
The NHS Stroke Act FAST pages offer a great deal of information about stroke, including how to recognise the signs, some real stories of stroke sufferers and advice on how to live your life after a stroke.
A transient ischaemic attack (TIA), or 'mini-stroke', is caused by a temporary fall in the blood supply to part of the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen to the brain. This can cause symptoms that are similar to a stroke, although they don’t last as long. A TIA lasts only a few minutes and is usually resolved within 24 hours
As TIAs are serious, it is important that they are always investigated so that appropriate treatment can be given quickly. With treatment, the risk of a further TIA or a full stroke can be greatly reduced.
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